The End of History and the Last Man
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Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Ever since its first publication in , The End of History and the Last Man has provoked controversy and debate. Product Details. Samuel P. In the essay and book, Huntington argued that the temporary conflict between ideologies is being replaced by the ancient conflict between civilizations.
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The dominant civilization decides the form of human government, and these will not be constant. He especially singled out Islam , which he described as having "bloody borders". In the weeks after the attacks, Fareed Zakaria called the events "the end of the end of history", while George Will wrote that history had "returned from vacation".
Fukuyama did discuss radical Islam briefly in The End of History. He argued that Islam is not an imperialist force like Stalinism and fascism; that is, it has little intellectual or emotional appeal outside the Islamic "heartlands".
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Fukuyama pointed to the economic and political difficulties that Iran and Saudi Arabia face and argued that such states are fundamentally unstable: either they will become democracies with a Muslim society like Turkey or they will simply disintegrate. Moreover, when Islamic states have actually been created, they were easily dominated by the powerful Western states.
In October , Fukuyama, in a Wall Street Journal opinion piece, responded to the declarations that the September 11 attacks had disproved his views by stating that "time and resources are on the side of modernity, and I see no lack of a will to prevail in the United States today. Another challenge to the "end of history" thesis is the growth in the economic and political power of two countries, Russia and China ; China has a one-party state government, while Russia, though formally a democracy, has been categorised by the Polity data series as a anocracy.
He considered the challenge of China and Russia to be the major threat, since they could pose a viable rival model which could inspire other states. In his Washington Post opinion piece, Fukuyama also addressed this point.
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He wrote, "Despite recent authoritarian advances, liberal democracy remains the strongest, most broadly appealing idea out there. In , on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the publication of the original essay, "The End of History? He wrote that, while liberal democracy still had no real competition from more authoritarian systems of government "in the realm of ideas", nevertheless he was less idealistic than he had been "during the heady days of He stated that the biggest problem for the democratically elected governments in some countries was not ideological but "their failure to provide the substance of what people want from government: personal security, shared economic growth and the basic public services Twenty-five years later, the most serious threat to the end-of-history hypothesis isn't that there is a higher, better model out there that will someday supersede liberal democracy; neither Islamist theocracy nor Chinese capitalism cuts it.
Once societies get on the up escalator of industrialization, their social structure begins to change in ways that increase demands for political participation. If political elites accommodate these demands, we arrive at some version of democracy. Fukuyama also warned of "political decay," which he wrote could also affect established democracies like the United States, in which corruption and crony capitalism erode liberty and economic opportunity.
Nevertheless, he expressed his continued belief that "the power of the democratic ideal remains immense. Following Britain's decision to leave the European Union and the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States in , Fukuyama feared for the future of liberal democracy in the face of resurgent populism,    and the rise of a "post-fact world",  saying that "twenty five years ago, I didn't have a sense or a theory about how democracies can go backward.
And I think they clearly can. Fukuyama has also stated that his thesis was incomplete, but for a different reason: "there can be no end of history without an end of modern natural science and technology" quoted from Our Posthuman Future. Fukuyama predicts that humanity's control of its own evolution will have a great and possibly terrible effect on liberal democracy.
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