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Von einem Unbekannten, 28 February Quoted in Emerson, Metternich and the Political Police, Zerffi, New York, , Sealsfield, Austria as it is; or, Sketches of continental courts London, , They are recruited from the lower classes of the merchants, of domestic servants, of workers, nay even of prostitutes, and they form a coalition which traverses the entire Viennese society as the red silk thread runs through the rope of the English navy.

Expansion: Secret Societies Outside Europe

You can scarcely pronounce a word at Vienna which would escape them. You have no de- fence against them and if you take even your own servants, they become within fourteen days, even aga- inst their own will, your traitors. Various agents as the ones described above, supported by local pay-masters, copied letters that could be of political interest before having them delivered to the provincial or the metropolitan police authorities or in other occasions the post officers themselves acting also as spies might conduct the same process These odious measures are not executed with the finesse which characterized the French, nor with the military rudeness of the Prussian, but in that silly and despicable way of the Austrian, who, as he is the most awkward personage for this most infamous of all commissions, takes, notwithstan- ding, a sort of pride in being an Imperial instrument and a person of importance.

The Habsburg Secret Police in Neoabsolutism.

The revolution of provoked the downfall of the greatly unpopular Police Mini- ster Sedlnitzky, while the abolition of the Police Ministry along with its notorious cen- sorial and surveillance mechanism were among the earliest and most celebrated suc- cesses of the Viennese revolutionaries Nevertheless, despite the substantial break that the revolution noted in the history of the Austrian secret police, it by no means meant its definite end. The official statistician and apologist of the regime Carl von Czoerning ca- lculated those cases to more than 8, between and Such increased activity against the Habsburg state itself and its representatives could not passed unnoticed.

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Serious reforms regarding the organization of the police and sur- veillance forces were deemed necessary and were enforced as a part of the broader ad- ministrative reform of the state in the early neoabsolutist years The most important change was the creation of the gendarmerie corps that eventually included in its ranks 19, men organized in 19 battalions This new body was put initially under the juri- sdiction of the Interior Minister Alexander Freiherr von Bach 27 and subse- quently under the orders of the new Chief of Police Johann Franz Freiherr von Kempen Active initiatives were also taken in the direction of the collaboration with the other German states against potential revolutionary threats.

In a police organization Polizeiverein that included the most important German states Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony, Wurttemberg and Baden was formed in order the police systems of the above mentioned states to coordinate their activities for the com- mon interest Februar Stationen einer umstrittenen Karriere Frankfurt a. It becomes thus obvious, that the police reorgani- zation was one the most important aspects of the Austrian structural reforms after These reforms would be nevertheless imperfect if they would accompanied by an e- qually extensive reorganization of the secret police as well, which was rendered once again fearsome.

Bach established an international network of agents in the Western and Central European countries but also in the Ottoman lands as well, where many of the Hungarian revolutionary leaders had found settler.

International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

These agents were divided to those who directly and those who were indirectly employed from Vienna direkt verwendet and indirekt verwendet respective- ly. People in the first category knew the purpose and nature of their work and had an idea where their money came from, while those in the second were left to speculate and had access to Vienna only through their liaison These docu- ments served as the basis of weekly summaries compiled by the Interior Ministry for the direct use of the emperor While there were two or three agents watching exiled revolutionaries in most European centers the number came to eight in Germany alone , in the Balkans and in the Ottoman Empire sixteen agents were working by the middle of From there they are directed systematically and uniformly.

What we have achieved is shown in the weekly reports, the numerous longer memoranda and the more than official documents with state police content not to mention the more than 4, documents generated by the section which alert the authorities at home and abroad to dangers. Apart from the Polizeiverein itself, also the pre-revolutionary network of spies in Ger- many was partly reactivated after He was born probably in Vienna and joined the secret service in his early twenties, in , while he was employed by the Austrian government for more than twenty years and became a confident of Bach and of Kempen.

Initially, he worked in Serbia, but after that he was sent to the Ottoman Empire to organize the surveillance of Hungarian, Po- lish and Italian exiles while after he was responsible for organizing and managing the secret services in Venice. Emerald Isle Books. Emerald Isle Books Firm.

Emergency Management Australia. Emerit, Marcel.

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Emerling, Jae. Emerson, Alice B. Emerson, Anne.

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